Profesor architekt Gottfried Semper

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Gottfried Semper

Gottfried Semper (29. listopadu 1803 - Hamburg - 15. května 1879 - Řím) byl neorenesanční architekt, teoretik architektury a německý emigrant. Je proslaven svými architektonickými díly, tvořil v 19. století, kdy například dostavěl drážďanský Zwinger.

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Early life (to 1834)
Semper was born into a well-to-do industrialist family in Altona. The fifth of eight children, he attended the Johanneum School in Hamburg before starting his university education at Göttingen in 1823, where he studied history and mathematics. He subsequently studied architecture in 1825 at the University of Munich under Friedrich von Gärtner. In 1826, Semper travelled to Paris in order to work under the architect Franz Christian Gau and he was present when the July Revolution of 1830 broke out. Between 1830 and 1833, he travelled to Italy and Greece in order to study the architecture and designs of antiquity. In 1832, he spent four months involved in archaeological research of the famous Akropolis in Athens.

During this period, he became very interested in the Biedermeier-inspired polychromy debate, which centred around the question whether buildings in Ancient Greece and Rome had been colorfully painted or not. His 1834 publication Vorläufige Bemerkungen über bemalte Architectur und Plastik bei den Alten (Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture and Sculpture in Antiquity) brought him sudden recognition in architectural and aesthetic circles across Europe[1].

Dresden period (1834 - 1849)

Dresden, Interior of the first Hoftheater (Semper Oper)On September 30, 1834 Semper obtained a post as Professor of Architecture at the Königlichen Akademie der bildenden Künste (today called the Hochschule) in Dresden thanks largely to the efforts and support of his former teacher Franz Christian Gau and swore an oath of allegiance to the King (formerly Elector) of Saxony, Anthony Clement. The flourishing growth of Dresden during this period provided the young architect with considerable creative opportunities. In 1838-40 a synagogue was built in Dresden to Semper's design, it was ever afterward called the Semper Synagogue and is noted for its Moorish Revival style.[1] Semper's student, Otto Simonson would construct the magnificent Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue in 1855.

Certain civic structures remain today, such as the Elbe-facing gallery of the Zwinger Palace complex. His first building for the Dresden Hoftheater burnt down, and the second, today called the Semperoper, was built in 1841. Other buildings also remain indelibly attached to his name, such as the Maternity Hospital, the Synagogue (destroyed during the Third Reich), the Oppenheim Palace, and the Villa Rosa built for the banker Martin Wilhelm Oppenheim. This last construction stands as a prototype of German villa architecture.

On September 1, 1835 Semper married Bertha Thimmig. The marriage ultimately produced six children.

A convinced Republican, Semper took a leading role, along with his friend Richard Wagner, in the May 1849 uprising which swept over the city . He was a member of the Civic Guard (Kommunalgarde) and helped to erect barricades in the streets. When the rebellion collapsed, Semper was considered a leading agitator for democratic change and a ringleader against government authority and he was forced to flee the city.

He was destined never to return to the city that would, ironically, become most associated with his architectural (and political) legacy. The Saxon government maintained a warrant for his arrest until 1863. When the Semper-designed Hoftheater burnt down in 1869, King John, on the urging of the citizenry, commissioned Semper to build a new one. Semper produced the plans, but left the actual construction to his son, Manfred.

Post-revolutionary period (1849 - 1855)
After stays in Zwickau, Hof, Karlsruhe and Strasbourg, Semper eventually ended up back in Paris, like many other disillusioned Republicans from the 1848 Revolutions (such as Heinrich Heine and Ludwig Börne). In the fall of 1850, he travelled to London, England. But while he was able to pick up occasional contracts — including participation in the design of the funeral carriage for the Duke of Wellington — he found no steady employment. If his stay in London was disappointing professionally, however, it proved a fertile period for Semper's theoretical, creative and academic development. He published Die vier Elemente der Baukunst (The Four Elements of Architecture) in 1851 and Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kunst (Science, Industry and Art) in 1852. These works would ultimately provide the groundwork for his most widely regarded publication, Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik, which was published in two volumes in 1861 and 1863.[2]

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Gottfried, architekt (*29. list.1803 v Hamburce-†1879 v Římě). Konal studia archaeologická, mathematická a vojenská v Gotinkách, od r. 1825 studoval v Mnichově, na to spolupůsobil v Řezně o vydávání díla o tamním dómu a odebral se do Paříže ke Gauovi. Ztráviv tu tříletí navštívil jih,Italii, Sicilii,Řecko (1830). V Řecku pronesl své mínění o polychromii u Řekův, jež zprvu narazilo na odpor. Vrátiv se zbudoval v Hamburce museum Donnerovo a odebral se k Schinkelovi do Berlína (1832). R. 1834 [Semper]-ovi dostalo se professury na akad. drážďanské, kam doporučil jej Schinkel na místo sebe. V Drážďanech kynulo mu vedle činnosti akademické i působení praktické Zbudovalť tu novou synagogu (1838-40) a zvl. divadlo dvorní (1838-41). Pak řadu domů soukromých (Villa Rosa, palác Oppenheimův, obé slohu renaiss.) a po r. 1846 galerii drážďanskou, uceliv jí oba nespojené hlavní oddíly Zwingru. Ale dokončení práce nepopřáno mu pro účast v květnovém povstání r. 1849. [Semper] opustil tehdy Drážďany, odebral se do Paříže a do Anglie, kdež r. 1851 dostalo se mu místa při akademii v Marlboroughhouse. Odtud působil na rozvoj angl. reforem školství umělecko-průmyslového (od r. 1851) a při založení musea South-Kensingtonského. Tehdy sepsal: Ueber die vier Elemente der Baukunst (Brunšv., 1851) a četná pojednání o uměleckém průmyslu, jež vzrostla v systematické, epochální dílo: Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten (Mnichov, 1860-63, 2 sv.; 2. vyd. 1878 až 1879). Další dráha vede [Semper]-a na polytechnicum curišské (1855), jemuž vybudovává velkolepě prostý útulek, a řídí obor stavitelský (1859-64). Tvoří zároveň hvězdárnu curišskou, městský dům ve Winterthuru (1865 až 1866), nádraží curišské, soukromé stavby monumentálního dechu a velikolepé návrhy pro divadlo v Riu de Janeiro. Mnichovské divadlo Wagnerovské stavěti [Semper]-ovi se neuskutečnilo, za to provedeno do r. 1877 divadlo drážďanské na místě shořelého (21. září 1869). T. r. povolávají [Semper]-a do Vídně, nejprve za jurora, pak za ředitele staveb c. k. museí dvorních, dvor. hradu a dvor. divadla. R. 1871 [Semper] stěhuje se do Vídně, řídí a přetváří podle Hasenauerových plánů započaté stavby museí. (Srv. Die k. k. Hofmuseen in Wien und Gottfried [Semper] Drei Denkschriften G. [Semper]-s, herausgegeben von seinen Söhnen, Inšpr., 1892.) Sklonek života ztravuje v Italii. Drážďány r. 1892 poctívají jej bronzovou sochou na terase Brühlově (od Schillinga). Ze spisů [Semper]-ových uvésti jest ještě: Ueber die formelle Gesetzmassigkeit des Schmucks und dessen Bedeutung als Kunstsymbol (Cur., 1856); Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kunst (Brunšv., 1852); Ueber die bleiernen Schleudergeschosse der Alten (Frankf., 1859) a syny [Semper]-ovými Manfredem a Hansem vyd. Kleine Schriften (Berl., 1884).-Srv. Hans [Semper], Gottfried [Semper] Ein Bild seines Lebens u. Wirkens (Berl., 1880); Lipsius, Gottfried [Semper] in seiner Bedeutung als Architekt (t., 1880); Sommer, Gottfr. [Semper] (t., 1886).

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